Trademark of a culture: The horse-drawn Vardo wagons used by the Romani people of Britain

 
 
 
SHARE:

Picking up a book by a Romani writer might surprise you for several reasons. First, it could be the voice of the character, which is emptied of Roma-related prejudices and would hardly evoke any sense of “otherness” in the narrative.

Second, the protagonists, as seen through the eyes of Roma people, are not instantly branded as being different. And third, the story surprisingly may be about something banal, not exotic, and it can certainly make for an extraordinary read. But like many things related to Roma people, their literature–and other cultural artifacts–has traditionally occupied a spot on the edge of society.

For many decades after their arrival in Europe, the Roma people continued to live their nomadic way of life. As on the continent, the Romani travelers go a long way back in Britain. Naturally, their culture on the island blended within the local context, but they still also managed to preserve essential traits originating from their homeland in 8th and 9th century India.

Romanichal-style trotting cart Author:Rumney2012 CC BY-SA 3.0

In Britain, Kent would count as one of the regions that has the highest populations of Romani. The reason for this lies in its history of edible bounty: For perhaps four centuries, Kent has proudly retained the title of being the “Garden of England.”

Source Tim Sheerman-Chase /Flickr
Vardo Author Tim Sheerman-Chase /CC By 2.0Flickr

This title dates back to the times of King Henry VIII, who been particularly pleased after trying a dish of fresh Kent cherries. The desired fruit and vegetable gardens of Kent, therefore, required a larger mobile workforce, which is where the Romani travelers most likely came into the picture. Working on the farms in the countryside proved to be a great way for the Romani to support their nomadic way of life.

Source Ozzy Delaney /Flickr
Romani Caravan Author Ozzy Delaney / CC By 2.0 Flickr

What truly made their way of life possible were the Vardo wagons. The Romani families would faithfully follow the rhythm of the seasonal work on the farms.

Source Ozzy Delaney. /Flickr
Romani Caravan Author Ozzy Delaney / CC By 2.0 Flickr

Their wagons were pulled by horses and were heavily ornamented on the exterior, while the inside was built to accommodate the family members during the night. Throughout the winters, the moving around the country stopped, as the Romani picked a suitable place to rest, such as on the edges of urban areas.

Source Ozzy Delaney./Flickr
Romani Caravan Author Ozzy Delaney / CC By 2.0 Flickr

A great number of Romani traveling groups consisted of parents, children, and grandparents, but extended family members too. Each member of the group made their contributions to the moveable household. When adults were out working, the elderly spent their days with the young.

Source Much Ramblings /Flickr
Vardo Much Ramblings / CC By 2.0Flickr

In the evenings, all the folks would gather around the fireplace to share the events of the day, and then enjoy themselves by singing songs or perhaps telling stories after eating.

Source KathrynW1. /Flickr
Author KathrynW1. /CC By 2.0Flickr

The vivid vardo wagons came to symbolize this way of Romani life only when they were introduced around the mid 19th-century. Up until that point, a tent dwelling had made a good enough shelter. The structure of the tent was sophisticated in that it had space in the middle for making a fire and there would also be an opening above to enable the smoke to move out of the living space.

Source Ian D /Flickr
Vardo Author Ian D /CC By 2.0Flickr

When the vardo caravans appeared, however, they provided a much cozier living environment.

Source samsaundersleeds /Flickr
Author samsaundersleeds /CC By 2.0Flickr

As the back of the wagon usually made space for sleeping, any wagon would also typically feature a small cooker and other pieces of furniture, such as a table, cupboards, and mirrors. The inside of the wagon made for a homey living space, and the exterior spoke of the status of the family. Elaborate carvings and complex painted designs of animals or flowers were some of the common features to be seen on the Romani caravans.

Source big-ashb /Flickr
Author:big-ashb /CC by 2.0Flickr

However, if those details were carvings of gold leaves, that specifically pointed out that the Romani family was quite wealthy. The exterior decor of the vardo was almost always personal, and some particular designs have made individual makers recognizable for their craftsmanship and artwork.

Source Abi Skipp/Flickr
Author Abi Skipp/ CC By 2.0/Flickr

The vardo wagons, like a house on four wheels, saw their heyday through the second half of the 19th century, and the trends continued over the first two decades of the 20th century. Its popularity eventually dropped following the end of World War Two.

Romanichal Reading vardo, early 20th century CC BY-SA 3.0

During this period, newly introduced legislations made it all the more difficult for their users to find good stopping places for wintertime. That is how the British Romani people eventually had to give up their custom of a traveling lifestyle and took to settling down.

Romnichal-style Ledge vardo Author: Rumney2012 CC BY-SA 3.0

Such change meant that after so much time spent living outdoors, the Romani had to adjust their ancient customs to a new setting. Even though their life on the move largely ended, the vardo wagons, which were the essential means of maintaining that lifestyle, have survived.

Read another story from us: The British Museum has issued the first online 3D scan version of the ancient Rosetta Stone

Just like the old masters who adorned the vardo caravans with various colors and ornaments, there are contemporaries such as Yorkie Greenwood or Tol Thompson producing wagons just like those of the Gypsies, and their collections are here to remind us of the beautiful heritage of the Romani culture.