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15 Beautiful old photos show Tanzania back in the 1960s

Ian Smith

Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania

The African Great Lakes nation of Tanzania dates formally from 1964, when it was formed out of the union of the much larger mainland territory of Tanganyika and the coastal archipelago of Zanzibar. The former was a colony and part of German East Africa from the 1880s to 1919, when, under the League of Nations, it became a British mandate. It served as a military outpost during World War II, providing financial help, munitions, and soldiers. In 1947, Tanganyika became a United Nations Trust Territory under British administration, a status it kept until its independence in 1961. Zanzibar was settled as a trading hub, subsequently controlled by the Portuguese, the Sultanate of Oman, and then as a British protectorate by the end of the nineteenth century.

 

A Dental Assistant attends a patient at the Dental Unit, Princess Margaret Hospital, Dar es Salaam.

A Dental Assistant attends a patient at the Dental Unit, Princess Margaret Hospital, Dar es Salaam.

 

A Hehe warrior, Southern Highlands Province.

A Hehe warrior, Southern Highlands Province.

 

A Mkinga girl, a tribe from Southern Highlands Province. Southern Highlands Province, Tanganyika.1960

A Mkinga girl, a tribe from Southern Highlands Province. Southern Highlands Province, Tanganyika.1960

 

Carnival procession on 6th June. Tangyianka

Carnival procession on 6th June. Tangyianka

 

Drying Copra on Mafia Island off the Tanganyika coast.

Drying Copra on Mafia Island off the Tanganyika coast.

 

Heavy Rock Drilling. 2 Miles West of Kidahi.

Heavy Rock Drilling. 2 Miles West of Kidahi.

 

Inter-racial children's pageant.

Inter-racial children’s pageant.

In 1947, Tanganyika became a United Nations trust territory under British control. “It’s geography, topography, climate, geopolitics, patterns of settlement and history made Tanganyika the most significant of all UN Trust Territories.” But two-thirds of the population lived in one-tenth of the territory because of water shortages, soil erosion, unreliable rainfall, tsetse fly infestations, and poor communications and transportation infrastructures.

In 1957, only 15 towns had over 5,000 inhabitants, with the capital Dar es Salaam having the nation’s highest population of 128,742. Tanganyika was a multi-racial territory, which made it unique in the trusteeship world.Its total non-African population in 1957 was 123,310 divided as follows: 95,636 Asians and Arabs (subdivided as 65,461 Indians, 6,299 Pakistanis, 4,776 Goans, and 19,100 Arabs), 3,114 Somalis, and 3,782 “coloured” and “other” individuals. The white population, which included the Europeans (British, Italians, Greeks, and Germans) and white South Africans, totalled 20,598 individuals.Tanganyika’s ethnic and economic make-up posed problems for the British.Their policy was geared to ensuring the continuance of the European presence as necessary to support the country’s economy. But the British also had to remain responsive to the political demands of the Africans.

Muheza orange harvest, Tanga Province. 1960

Muheza orange harvest, Tanga Province. 1960

 

Panning - the classic method of prospecting for gold and tin is shown to would-be prospectors attending 'School for Miners', East Africa's first training for prospectors, at Morogoro, Eastern Province.

Panning – the classic method of prospecting for gold and tin is shown to would-be prospectors attending ‘School for Miners’, East Africa’s first training for prospectors, at Morogoro, Eastern Province.

 

Rock drilling on New Road. Approach to Igagala Bridge - 3 Miles East of Kidahi.

Rock drilling on New Road. Approach to Igagala Bridge – 3 Miles East of Kidahi.

 

Tanganyika.

Tanganyika.

 

Tanganyika

Tanganyika

 

The opening of Mandera Bridge, the highest and one of the longest bridges in Tanganyika - being 290 ft. long and spanning the Wami River at the height of 50 feet.

The opening of Mandera Bridge, the highest and one of the longest bridges in Tanganyika – being 290 ft. long and spanning the Wami River at the height of 50 feet.

 

Tractor cultivation on alienated land, Galappo development scheme, Northern Province. 1960s

Tractor cultivation on alienated land, Galappo development scheme, Northern Province. 1960s