Dry conditions started to increase in the beginning of the 16th century, transfiguring the regional landscapes into marsh and swamps. It became a grand pasture by the time Olof Ohman settled there in the late 1800s. Neither he or anyone else knew at that time it was surrounded by water back in the year of 1362.
Investigators as well pointed out many triangular holes that were cut into the boulders. Evidently a very long time ago, along riverways going toward Ohman’s farm, the 14th-century seafarers were noted to favor triangular mooring holes.
Not very far north and 27 years before the discovery of the Kensington Rune Stone, an old fire steel was added to the medieval Norse specimens located at the Oslo’s University Museum. It had been uncovered from the deep beneath the banks of the Red River near Climax, Minnesota.
Evidence such as this prompted investigators to seek out professional assistance of their own in 2000. They chose to contact St. Paul American Petrographic Services.
This firm specialized in the analysis of the materials used to construct the stone. It was to determine the specifications, conformance, and suitability or the causes of failure.
It was and is still owned and headed by Scott F. Wolter, who is a certified geologist, university trained, who previously did not hear of the Kensington Rune Stone. He conducted the first detailed physical analysis since Winchell’s research 90 years before.
With no ideas or preconceived notions, he came up with a different outcome from his research. Wolter started using photography with a reflected light microscope. He would sample the core and examine it through a scanning electron microscope.
In the month of November, he presented his main discoveries. This alleged artifact had signs of a subsurface erosion process that required a minimum of 200 years. In simplified terms, the Kensington Rune Stone was buried for around a century before Olof Ohman had dug it up.
Wolter’s end result was based on the full breakdown of mica crystals on the engraved surface of the stone. Compared to the gathered samples of slate gravestones from Maine, these show that biotite mica starts mechanically flaking off the surfaces after 197 years. Skeptics set out to fault his resolution by arguing that standards for mica degradation did not exist.
He responded by to that by saying that there was no standard for the mica degradation work that he had performed on the rune stone since to his knowledge he was the first to perform this kind of relative age dating examination.
Interested, he started to examine each individual rune with a scanning electron microscope. This revealed many remarkable characteristics not seen to the naked eye.
Also noticed is a hitherto unseen series of dots carved inside three R-runes. This finding was very significant, for the reason that dotted runes only occur on the head stones of 14th century graves. They were located in church cemeteries on the island of Gotloand, which was off the coast of Sweden. The rune stone text goes back to the same century and references eight crewmen from Gotland.
Wolter then studied and copied the rune stone from the first geologic report released in 1910. Early 21st century technology firmly established Prof. Winchell’s conclusion that the artifact was indeed authentically pre-Columbian. The finding of a single runic letter “the dotted R” was not identified to scholars until 1935.
But it was discovered on the rune stone that was discovered in the year 1898. The stone engravings could have only been carved during medieval times.
Leaving no doubt of the verification of the Kensington Rune Stone’s 14th-century identity was indeed a true scientific triumph. It confirms beyond a doubt that the Scandinavian seafarers arrived in North America 130 years before Christopher Columbus had left Span in hunt of a new world.
Yet Wolter broadens his studies to unveil much more. He had found out that the rune stone was not just some pre-Columbian object, but it proved that the Norse had beaten the Spaniards to America. He has ultimately defined it as a land claim marker.
This means the men who had left it were declaring for themselves what later turned into west central Minnesota. The inscription’s date of 1362, Wolter demonstrates, was in addition to the encoded in the runic text itself. The Arabic numerals were defenseless to alteration by interlopers.
After the carving, the stone was buried, a triangular formed hole was drilled into glacial boulders nearby. These were used to relocate the exact position of the buried stone. The directional marker holes have no firm evidence, but were discovered – they still indicate the primary location of the rune stone’s finding by the man Olof Ohman.
Wolter decided to go further into his quest for information about the artifact to find the identity of the man who engraved the inscription – the Cistercian monk from Gotland mentioned in the runic text. The Cistercians lived under religious vows as Gnostic Christians.
They were the founders of the Knight Templar and survived its destruction during the 14th century. They migrated from France to other places in Europe, including Gotland. Templars were still settlers of the island at the period of time the Kensington Rune Stone was carved. Wolter claimed the inscription included information that was related to who the party was, where their exact location was, why they were there, and when.
The Hooked X
The key to unlocking this information was the mysterious hooked X that appears on the rune stone as well as other runic texts in Europe and pre-Columbian North America.
Wolter has explained the hooked X was a symbol that was important and likely made by the Cistercian monks. The X was a symbol of the balance and duality of woman and man, and heaven and earth.
The hook that is in the X symbolized the offspring or children, representing the continuance of the Goddess belief through common thought and bloodlines.
This specific glyph is helpful in the verification of a runic inscription. It is highly unlikely to have been known to a hoaxer and it appears on a few artifacts. It has been dated back to the late Middle Ages, and this is helping to create not only the truth of the stone, but the time the particular rune was made.
Wolter gave us the Kensington Rune Stone amoung other, linked finds. Among the best noted is Rhode Island’s Newport Tower.
Appointed by mainstream archaeologists to be nothing more than a ruin from the 17th century mill claimed to be owned by the family of Benedict Arnold, the stone building in Touro Park, as Wolter demonstrates, was created using architecture that is not conformable to pre-Colonial construction before the first noted recording in Benedict Arnold’s will in the year of 1677.
For example, the standard unit of measurement used in construction through all New England in the 17th century was the English foot. The Newport Tower was laid out in the Norwegian short alen, so it was not created by the 17th-century colonists.
Mysterious Tower Explained
He quotes the procedures that were applied to the 1997 structure by the Danish professor Andre J. Bethune. The carbon 15 examination displayed that the Newport Tower was standing throughout the years of 1440 to 1480.
Wolter displays the near resemblance to the sacred structures located in medieval Europe and the Near East, Scotland’s middle 12th century Eynhallow Church located in Orkeney, or Jerusalem’s Templum Domini. These determine the baptistery was additionally employed for navigational reasons.
James Whittall pointed out that the tool marks made in the dressing out of the stonework of the Newport Tower can be directly linked to tools in use before 1400. These marks are unknown and uncharted when compared to tool marks recognized in Colonial stonework.
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