On December 1, 1807, the Napoleonic forces invaded the capital of Portugal, Lisbon. Days before the invasion, on November 29, 1807, The Braganza royal family along with Queen Maria I of Portugal and the court of nearly 15,000 people of Lisbon departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil.
The Royal court arrived in Salvador, Brazil on January 22, 108, there Prince John signed the law opening a commerce relations between the “friendly nations” such as The United Kingdom and Brazil. On March 7, 1808, the Portuguese Royal Court arrived in Rio De Jenerio, and Prince John created the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves, promoting Brazil to the same rank as Portugal at the same time increasing the administrative independence of Brazil. When the Queen Maria died in 1816, Prince John became the king of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
The transfer of the Portuguese court in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil saw an important increase in its population, a valuable increase in trade and subsequent immigration and it was quickly transformed into a main economic center in the New World. All of these newly created conditions would later led to Brazil’s independence.In 1815, Brazil got rid of its colonial status and became a co-kingdom of Portugal.
From 1808 to 1820, when John I returned to Portugal, Rio De Janeiro was the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal, in what some historians call a “metropolitan reversal.”