Theodor Eicke, the man who virtually created the concentration camp model, was released from a mental asylum on Himmler’s orders



A son of a station master and the youngest of 11 children, Theodor Eicke, did not like school too much, failing to graduate and dropped out at the age of 17. He fought in WWI and received the Iron Cross for bravery. In the 1920s he went on to pursue a career in the police. There he started as an informer and later became a regular policeman. He got into trouble at work because of his intense hatred for the Weimar Republic and his constant involvement in violent political demonstrations. In a nutshell, Eicke’s view of the Weimar Republic was allied with those of the Nazi party, so it was only natural that he would join them.

The Nazi party was the one place where he, unfortunately, progressed. He quickly rose in rank, mainly for his work in recruiting new members and enlarging the SS in Bavaria. In 1931, Eicke was promoted to the rank of SS colonel by one of the most notorious Nazis, Heinrich Himmler.

Theodor Eicke, photo credit

The next year, Theodor Eicke was caught preparing bomb attacks on political adversaries in Bavaria for which he was sentenced to a two-year prison sentence. As he already enjoyed the privileges and protection, he was able to flee to Italy. Eicke returned to Germany in March 1933, shortly after Hitler’s rise to power. Following a quarrel with the politician Josef Bürckel, he was arrested and detained for a couple of months in a mental asylum.

But then there was Himmler again, setting up the first official concentration camp northwest of Munich, at Dachau. Reportedly, Hitler had stated that he did not want it to be just another prison or detention camp.  So, in June 1933, Himmler released Eicke from the asylum and promoted him to SS senior colonel. By the end of the month, Himmler had him appointed as commandant of Dachau.

According to Andrew Mollo, author of the book To The Death’s Head: The story of the SS, Theodor Eicke “was a rough unstable character whose violent and unruly behavior had already given Himmler many headaches. At least Himmler found an ideal backwater for his troublesome subordinate and sent him off to Dachau.”

However, Eicke was continually supported by Himmler. For instance, he had requested a permanent unit and Himmler had granted him the SS Guard Unit. Under Eicke, what started to happen at Dachau was shocking, although that was merely the beginning of the dark history of the Nazi camps.


Rudolf Höss, at that point a guard at Dachau, and as the records show, went on to become the longest-serving commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp in WWII, had later recalled his first impressions of Eicke: “I can clearly remember the first flogging that I witnessed. Eicke had issued orders that a minimum of one company from the guard unit must attend the infliction of these corporal punishments. Two prisoners who had stolen cigarettes from the canteen were sentenced to twenty-five lashes each with the whip.”



After describing how the prisoners were punished and tortured, Höss concludes his recollection as follows: “When the man began to scream I went hot and cold all over. In fact, the whole thing, even the beating of the first prisoner made me shudder. Later on, at the beginning of the war, I attended my first execution, but it did not affect me nearly so much as witnessing that first corporal punishment.”

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