Today Stonehenge is England’s most important monument, but 100 years ago it was up for sale. The man who bought it helped seal its fate.Standing on Salisbury Plain, its stones visible from afar, Stonehenge has been a Unesco World Heritage Site since 1986 and attracts a million visitors a year.
So it’s strange to think that England’s most significant monument was once bought by a barrister as a present to his wife. Or so one theory goes. Another is that he feared a rich American might take it.
Whatever his motivation, 100 years ago, on 21 September 1915, Cecil Chubb paid £6,600 for the monument at an auction in Salisbury, Wiltshire. It happened, he said, “on a whim”.
Chubb’s wife Mary was reportedly less than grateful for the romantic gesture, possibly because the price equated to as much as £680,000 in today’s money. “It’s said that Mary wanted Cecil to buy a set of curtains at the auction,” says Stonehenge’s curator, Heather Sebire. “And he came back with something rather different.”
On 26 October 1918, 16 days before the Armistice ended World War One, Chubb passed Stonehenge into public ownership, via a deed of gift.
The next year Prime Minister David Lloyd George recognised his generosity with a title, Chubb becoming Sir Cecil Chubb, First Baronet of Stonehenge.
To mark this Chubb had a coat of arms made up, bearing a silver lion’s leg grasping two branches of mistletoe – a plant regarded as sacred by the druids who (people believed) worshipped at Stonehenge. The coat of arms bore the motto “Saxis Condita”, meaning “Founded on the stones”.
Chubb had come from humble origins. Born in 1876, his father was a saddler and harness-maker in the village of Shrewton, a few miles from Stonehenge.
He attended a grammar school, working his way, via a stint as a student teacher, to Cambridge University. He became a barrister and amassed a considerable fortune.
Chubb didn’t forget his roots when he gave Stonehenge away. His deed of gift stipulated the public shouldn’t pay “a sum exceeding one shilling” per visit. A separate agreement with the parish council said local people should get in for nothing.
The story of Stonehenge
- Large-scale human activity first seen around site around 7000 BC; first large earthwork was built around 3100 BC and second stage of construction around 2150 BC
- Third stage happened 150 years or so later, with the arrival of sandstones, probably from north Wiltshire, the largest weighing 50 tonnes – men dragged stones using sledges and leather ropes
- Stones were arranged into the present horseshoe and circle shape around 1500 BC
- Purpose of Stonehenge remains mystery – suggestions include royal burial ground, temple, site for human sacrifices, or building capable of predicting eclipses
- Site is aligned so sun shines through to particular point on summer and winter solstices, but no academic consensus over why prehistoric Britons thought this important
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